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The ancient Greeks and Egyptians were the first recorded culture to study the brain and its relationship with neural disorders. Scientists have made a variety of discoveries about the nervous system and the inner workings of the human brain. The first medical textbook—On the Workings of the Human Body—that addressed the function of the brain was published in 1543 by the Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius. In 1664, the English physician Thomas Willis published Anatomy of the Brain, which described reflexes, paralysis, epilepsy, and apoplexy. Willis is credited with coining the term neurology. Technology and advanced medical research techniques have fueled steady growth in the field since the 1950s. The work of neuroscientists has led to a more comprehensive understanding of the human brain and breakthroughs in the treatment of stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, cardiovascular disease, autistic spectrum disorders, and mental health–related issues.

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